The city then rose against the conspirators, who were tracked down and killed. A fierce and heroic anti-Fascist resistance movement fought in the German-occupied north for two years while underground political leaders organized the anti-Fascists into the Committee of National Liberation CLN. Even in those states which preserved the name of republic Florence and Venice the reality was something quite different from the outward forms. Their failure to reconcile these two positions or rather, their devotion to the second at the expense of the first secularized the papacy and brought the loss of much of its moral and spiritual authority. They received trading privileges from the Byzantine and German emperors, and even the Mohammedans. Within the limited confines of the Italian peninsula, one sees acted out the developments which would later unfold on the larger stage of the European continent, where the great nations would take over the roles of the city-states. The trading aristocracy looked after the commercial interests of the city with patriotic devotion, though not without a strong spirit of suspicion and distrust among themselves.
The Colonization of Africa
The oligarchy exercised its power through a Great Council and a Small Council. Unlike her father, however, she was more concerned with their stomachs being full than with their souls. As the instrument of their domination, they established an executive body of six priors the number was later increased to eight. On the other hand, the results of the continued disunity of Italy were, as we shall see, tragic. Garibaldi turned his conquests over to Victor Emmanuel, and in the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed.
WHKMLA : History of Italy, Unification
African forces in general fought with bows, arrows, spears, swords, old rifles, and cavalries; the European forces, beneficiaries of the technical fruits of the Industrial Revolution, fought with more deadly firearms, machines guns, new rifles, and artillery guns. Thus it was somewhat like British indirect rule, although the French still remained committed to the doctrine of assimilation. During the Bronze Age c. Thus our brief survey of the Renaissance papacy can conveniently conclude at this point. The prestige that the family had attained can be seen in the marriages of Galeazzo's children, who married into the French and English royal families. It was cheap and convenient.
In these circumstances many cities called in a podest, who was invariably a foreigner that is, he came from another Italian city and entrusted him with carefully defined powers for a limited period of time. In the late 19th century and in some places up to the s, several European countries and the United States exhibited colonial subjects "in their natural habitat" either in fair grounds or in zoos. Alexander's immediate successor, a nephew of Pius II who took the name of Pius III, was already ill and did not survive his election a month. Under the pretense of restoring to the papacy its lost territories, Pope Stephen II r. He failed to obtain the needed reforms, and his early death in was not lamented. Here it was following the example of the other great Renaissance republic, Florence.